What is Diacetyl and Acetyl Propionyl and why should I care?

Independent Toxicologist, R. Patrick Rainey, Ph.D., DABT, recently performed an evaluation of the use of Diacetyl and Acetyl Propionyl in e-liquid. His conclusion was:

“Upon critical evaluation of the available toxicology and epidemiology data described within this monograph and more thoroughly within the associated references, along with the smoking behavior data collected on both human subjects and CF-PD simulations describing compensatory smoking behaviors and more deep lung exposures from e-cigs/vaporizers, it is concluded that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione should not be considered as candidates for flavoring in the e-cig/vaporizer solution. Furthermore, any consideration of reactive volatile organic carbonyl compounds for inclusion into the e-cig/vaporizer solution should be thoroughly evaluated based upon the most recent toxicological and epidemiological data.”

To read the full paper you can find it here:https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0JrO25MOsG5VjBBd0d4SlVNOXM/edit?usp=sharing

Dr. Konstantinos Farsalinos published in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research, evaluating the presence of two inhalation toxins (diacetyl and acetyl propionyl) in e-cigarette liquids. Researchers, led by Dr, Konstantinos Farsalinos from the Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center in Athens-Greece, obtained 159 e-liquid samples (all sweet-flavored) from 36 manufactures and 7 countries (6 European and the US). They tested them for the presence of diacetyl and acetyl propionyl. These two chemicals are ingredients of flavorings and, although safe for use in food, have been associated with the development of respiratory dysfunction when inhaled.

The study found that 74.2% of the samples contained either diacetyl or acetyl propionyl, with more samples containing diacetyl. The levels were on average slightly lower than currently-established safety limits (set by NIOSH), but more than 40% of the samples had higher than safety levels. Of note, the highest amount of diacetyl found was 495 times higher than safety limits, while for acetyl propionyl it was 22 times higher. Tobacco cigarette smoke contains both compounds, at levels 100 times higher for diacetyl and 10 times higher for acetyl propionyl compared to e-cigarette average daily exposure.

You can find more information here:

http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/research/2014/178-da-ap